Tries from Owen Lane and Olly Robinson helped the home side to a 17-13 advantage over the spirited Italian outfit.
And while they stretched their lead further with a neat Ellis Jenkins try, a succession of injuries caused major disrupted with the flanker playing the final 20 minutes at fly-half.
Monty Ioane hit back with his eighth try in five PRO14 games but Nick Williams crashed over to secure the bonus-point.
Benetton did everything they could to force their way back into the game but the Blues displayed familiar grit and determination as Jenkins and Shingler closed the game out.
A try from replacement Ian McKinley set up a nervy finale but Seb Davies forced a vital turnover to seal the win.
The victory sees Cardiff Blues close the gap on Toyota Cheetahs, in third place, to just five points while they are now nine points clear of Connacht.
It was the Italians that opened the scoring with a Marty Banks penalty after just four minutes at the Arms Park following a scrum infringement.
The Blues had plenty of opportunities with ball in hand but their hard work was undone by mistakes in a scrappy opening quarter.
Benetton stretched their lead further on 15 minutes as Banks slotted a long-range penalty and they were soon pressing for a try.
An intelligent kick through from Banks piled the pressure on the Blues and following a succession of turnovers Treviso set up camp.
They went through a succession of phases before Gethin Jenkins put a stop to their momentum with a thunderous hit followed up by a trademark jackal.
The Blues sparked into life as the half hour mark approached and quick ball proved deadly.
Following a pair of charges down the left in quick succession from Nick Williams the ball was swiftly moved through the hands to the right.
Willis Halaholo put Matthew Morgan into space with a superb no look pass and the full-back needed no second invitation.
He slipped inside Monty Ioane before putting Owen Lane away for his third try in three games.
Jarrod Evans converted the score to hand his side the lead for the first time and he was back at the tee just two minutes later as the Blues struck for a second try.
It was a typical in-and-out break from the fly-half that created the opening and after scything through the Benetton defence, he found Lloyd Williams running the perfect scrum-half support line on the inside.
Williams maintained the momentum and released Robinson, who had just enough pace to finish the opportunity.
Evans again added the extras but Benetton were undeterred and they hit-back just five minutes later. Giorgio Bronzini charged down Evans and pounced on the ball for the try.
Banks converted but Evans had the final say of the half as he landed his first penalty of the evening to make it 17-13 at the interval.
The Blues introduced Tomos Williams and Scott Andres at the break and both made an impact in the opening exchanges of the half with their ability with ball in hand.
They claimed a third try with Williams, who was playing advantage, dinking a ball through from the breakdown for Jenkins to collect.
Evans added the extras but Treviso responded immediately as the young fly-half was charged down from the restart.
The Blues initially survived but the damage was done and two phases later Ioane crossed in the corner. Banks once again converted to make it 24-20.
Fortunately, the home side quickly replied with number eight Williams powering over from close range following a sustained period of pressure.
Evans converted but that was to be his last act at fly-half as he was forced inside to scrum-half after Tomos Williams was forced off with Steve Shingler coming on.
Soon after Evans departed and then Ellis Jenkins added scrum-half to his extensive repertoire.
The changes certainly disrupted the Blues’ flow and gave the Italians hope. After Ian McKinley crossed over in the dying seconds, you could cut the tension with a knife, but Seb Davies claimed a vital turn-over in the final play to seal a vital win.